Alpha-Pinene - Research

Alpha-Pinene's Effects and Benefits
• Alertness
• Increased focus
• Increased happiness and creativity
• Antiseptic
• Bronchodilator (helps improve airflow to lungs)

Alpha-Pinene is an aromatic compound that smells a lot like, you guessed it a forest of pine trees. Science has shown that alpha pinene is one of the most powerful terpenes around, with promising properties. It improves alertness, increasing focus and energy. One of the reasons pinene packs such a powerful punch lies in its ability to cross the blood/brain barrier. Once it arrives in the brain, it alters neurotransmitters in a way that results in better memory. Alpha Pinene is sourced from conifer trees, herbs such as rosemary and sage, and found in some varieties of citrus. Alpha Pinene is known for its uplifting and energising effects, it is also suggested to offer relief from inflammation and act as a bronchodilator  meaning it opens airways allowing for easier breathing. 

Research 

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY 
With acute pancreatitis, alpha-pinene treatment reduced histological damage and myeloperoxidase activity in the pancreas and lungs. Furthermore, alpha-pinene pretreatment reduced the production of pancreatic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)- 1beta, and IL-6 during acute pancreatitis. In vitro, alpha-pinene inhibited cerulein- induced cell death and cytokine production in isolated cerulein-treated pancreatic acinar cells. This could point to alpha-pinene possibly having beneficial effects with pancreatic cancer and maybe diabetes. It has been shown that alpha pinene has anti-inflammatory effects in human chondrocytes, thus exhibiting potential antiosteoarthritic activity. + alpha pinene was shown to inhibit the interleukin -1beta- induced inflammatory and catabolic pathways, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and c- Jun N-terminal kinases activation, and the expressionof the inflammatory (iNOS) and catabolic (MMP-1 and -13) genes. 
Protective effects of alpha-pinene in mice with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis 
Anti-inflammatory and Chondroprotective Activity of (+)-?-Pinene: Structural and Enantiomeric Selectivity 

ANTI-BACTERIAL 
As tested through solid medium diffusion procedure, pinene exhibited toxic effects against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogene Inhibitory effect of α-pinene, α-pinene and eugenol on the growth of potential infectious endocarditis causing Gram-positive bacteria 
Comparative Anti-Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) Activity of (-)-Pinene: Effect on Nucleocapsid (N) Protein 

ANTI-CANCER 
Mice placed in an environment enriched with a-pinene demonstrated reduced melanoma growth, and tumor volume of the mice was about 40% smaller than that in the control mice. In another study, alpha-pinene was identified as an active anti-proliferative compound on liver cancer BEL-7402 cells using the MTT assay. Alpha-pinene inhibited BEL-7402 cells by arresting cell growth in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, downregulating Cdc25C mRNA and protein expression, and reducing cycle dependence on kinase 1(CDK1) activity. 
Fragrant environment with α-pinene decreases tumor growth in mice 
Inhibitory Effects of α-Pinene on Hepatoma Carcinoma Cell Proliferation 

MEMORY ENHANCER 
Alpha pinene has been shown to be a uncompetitive reversible inhibitor of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The essential oil of sage having, camphor, 1,8-cineole, bornyl acetate, alpha pinene and several other terpenes in much smaller concentrations were exposed to human cells. Since many memory-enhancing and dementia drugs are based on inhibiting cholinesterase to enhance cholinergic activity, it is thought that alpha-pinene may act as an effective supplement for such conditions. 

Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity by Bicyclic Monoterpenoids